From: John Canny [jfc@brunello.CS.Berkeley.EDU]
Monday, July 12, 1999 10:26 PM
John Canny, UCB: HCC Retreat Overview
Fac member since 1987. He was in robotics and is new to HCC.
HCC is 30-40 faculty on campus. Not yet formal structure. going after
funding from NSF, and others sources.
HCC: ubiquitous, quiet, tightly coupled with the physical world.
Implies computing in a human context, rather than creating contexts that human
beings must learn and understand. Challenge: engineers must draw in social
Context: more than when and where an action takes place: includes
activities, goals, roles. Wants to understand social behajvior for computer
applications that truly assist people. Coomputing is permeating daily lives:
changing nature of work, how peole learn, buy goods and recreate. Transformss
society. Social scientists benefit from seeing emerging technologies up close
and inusing computer tools for large-scale studies.
Changes: caused by info tech. creation of K worker and info
copmanies. Agile corporations: temps, outsourcing, offshore labore, retraining.
largest employer in the usa is now manpower. average occupation is now 3 years:
implies must retrain. ubiquitous networks and comm create new social ties and
reshape social networks. promiste of education: learner autonomy and lifelong
learning. shift to small, dynamic groups that change their tasks, inc work at a
distance. challenge: working at a distance and keeping social closeness.
computing is becoming a basic literacy tool. unevenly distributed in the world,
which creates inequalities. HCC seeks to create a bridge between computer and
Timing: computing seems to be a great success (credited for rise in
Dow), but future sccess of info tech depends on scaling barriers that depend on
The challenges (the walls):
1. Natural hCI, inc speech, interpretation of dialogue, inclusion of
2. Computer literacy and lifelong learning. A competition: hci wants
to make computers easy to use and not require much skill for ordinary people.
opposite approach: make sure everyone has a foundation. not just fulltime
3. Face2face vs electronic interaction: working with
educational faculty at ucb.
4. Codified vs. tacit knowledge: how to augment people's natural
skills. procedural k is not normally available to computer systems, even tho
most people use computers now and it could be trapped. we must understand
people's patterns of communicaton.
5. Engineering vs the social sciences:
natural inteactions: pens, gesture, speech.
design of learning tools, tools for learning design.
design as praactice, tools for doing it.
cmc tools based on the psychology of interaction.
mining tacit knowledge, social and computer networks.
HCC faculty and staff: some of them are:
from computer science: Includes Robert Wilensky, james landay, john
from sociaology: wellman, bienenstock, castells, fischer.
fromGSeducation: andy disessa, marcia linn, michael ranney.
from psychology: dacher keltner, jjerry mendelsohn.
from mech enginerring
from business: rober e cole, jim loincoln
from sims: marti hearst
2. Telepresence, AR, Tangible Interfaces
John Canny, presenter
€PRoPs (personal roving presennces) and gesturing avatars.
€UPM: a universal planar manipulator
€Bearable computers: turning laptops into AR systems and wearable
[i missed the presentatiaon here]
Taxonomy of interaction behaviors:
verbal: symbolic and prosodic
Nonverbal comm theory says main cues are:
-gaze, proxemics, facial expression, body and hand gesture, posture, touch.
e.g., a handshake depends on touch.
Differences between speech and gesture:
Why nonverbal gestures are spatial:
You need social context as well: communiation, persuasion, trust-building.
These are very diffrent contests that rely on different nonverbal cues.
Two-way street: props provides selective control over partcular cues. they
profide testbed for detailed sutdy of nonverbal cues. they can create a rich
variety of media and study invfluence on overall perception of other person.
what makes a persona?
Input to Props: how do you achieve rich, expressive input for props/avatars
with today's technology?
Future research: gaze cue repair: face2face is not perfect. there are
common breakdowns in f2f communication, such as gaze aversion. it may be
possible to rectify gaze aversion using image processing and/or a synthetic gaze
2. UPM: a universal planar manipulator
A gadget: a smart desk can move a large number of objects
Bearable Computing: explores issues in personal, persistent computing (AR,
worn UIs) using ordinary laptops. Can avoid headmounted display, head tracking
and caples. the approach: use optics to overaly computdr images onreality, but
use laptops or pdas.
Augmented reality classroom is using the project. sudents work in groups of
5-7, communicating silently via pen or keyboard chat. each group has one main
notetaker, the others add their own commetns or question to the transcript.
students can mark up the group transcript of lecturer's notes. there is
nonarchived chat, also. one student per group works as facilitator or ta, posing
quesont to others and testing undestanding.
3. Informal Tools for Multimodal, context-based user
Pen-computing, context inference, MM UIs
James Landay, UCB
Trend in computing: mainframe to mini to personal pc leasds to innovation
and integration waves:
post-pc era: what is next: "universal computing"
1. includes covering all or a a whole colelctively or distributed.
Away from the average device: to personal, small devices. small, highly
mobile, embedded in environment. intelligenxe: immense storage and processing in
the infrastucture. everything connected.
1. Universal computing devices will not have the same UI as "dad's
PC": a wide range of devices, often wi ssall or no screens, or alternative
I/O, special purpose to particular applications. special purpose to particular
applicatons = info appliances. lots of devices per user all working
2. Design of good appliances will be hard: single device design is easy.
hard to design same app in a consistent manner across many devices, eg a
calendar app, one speech-based, one GUI based. hard to make different devices
work together: which is used when, multiple uis and modes/devices means which
should be displayed, building awareness of context of use into design is the key
to some of these issues.
3. multimodal input is assumed, but little design support for creating
1. build novel apps on existing appliance, eg, notepals on the palm pda
plus crosspad; build new info appliances, eg pda using purely speech.
2. evaluate appliances in realistic settings.
3. iterate: use the resulting experience to build more interesting
appliances to build better design tools and analysis techniques.
why is multimodel interaction had, and best practices for designing
Multimodeal interaction: when commncting with people, we use more than one
mode at a time: gesture+spk, sketch+spk, etc. computers would be esaier to use
if we used multimodal hcis and if we used innate perceptual, motor, and
cognitive skills. more people would be able to use comptuers inc users with
vision or motor imjpairments.
James Landay described his process of researching how to make better
interative prototyping tools for UI designers.
What they have done: informal sketch based tools for GUI design, inc.
sketch-based tool for website design.
They are also changing a speech-oriented tool. low-fi prototyping of
The have been able to make some auto generation of uis.
Universal computing is about supporting people, not ubiquitous computing or
pervasive computing. we should not focus on bits and servers. we should focus on
what are people's tasks and what can we do to support it better.
We need a new kind of appliance = device plus app plus UI.
Major place for success: take advantage of context, used in realistic
4. Computers as Design and Learning
Alice M. Agogino, Mech Engineering, UCB
Sherry Hsi, Center for Innovative Learning Technologies
combines the learning done in design and design done in learning.
Design process is driven by info
Most of design is redesign
Most design requires integration of hw and computing
Design is a social process: enterprise wide design requires learning form
others in a team and use of hot skills:
hot skills: communic, teamwork, leadership...difficult ones.
cold skills: math, analysis....more straightforward.
Imagine the workplace of the future: showed demo.
Manager promised full access and research and experts and money. time and
cost management are both important. this is an intro.
designer needs to understand components, review old products, look at old
projects. lit search, consult experts, design studio.
May need data mining to relate data that was not combined in the
In the design studio, can animate, simulate, create physical
Designer may want to review and select design paramters.
May need to balance time for research vs synthesis.
Multimedia case studies of engineering design.
See website: http://www1.needs.org/develop/
Highlight examples, shows best practices.
She claims learning and design are two sides of the same topic.
Internet is perceived by teachers as goo or essential.
Nat Acad of Sciences: www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/BeFIT/
being fluent with info technology
Human-centered computing: design and learning partners.
Techgy frees teacher to prompt and coach students.
Techgy can make learning visible: model thinking. scaffold sudents to
explain their ideas. provide multiple variations.
Techgy helps students learn from each other. SpeakEasy Web
discussion tool. listen and learn from each other. promote productive and
respectiful interactions. design criteria and standards. emply multiple social
Female teacher wanted to ask students how to change class. better to do
this earlier, not later.
They noted that female students spoke up more in online courses. shy
students spoke up.
Big gender differences.
COOL = next gen discussion tool: Collaboratiave online oportunitites for
Doug clark explained this asynchronous threaded discussion.
reviewers can rate comments.
In R+D environment, threaded discussion are being subjected to text
analysis so one can archive useful topics, to see patterns, to review design
Results of online learning.: 15% contribute in class discussion. 85%
contribute to electronic discussions.
Coaching improves K integration. They studies 8th graders. May96.
Coaching improved about as equal to cybercoaching; not as good, but
To examine situations well: need to look at context, goals, beliefs about
the context, eg schooling vs social chatting. This is scheduled
Gender differences: once they used technology, did it change facetoface?
their answer: don't know, but anecdotal evidence shows some improvement in
Innovative Learning Scenario.
UCB, Vanderbilt, and one other place are involved in innovative use of
technology to reform k-12 education.
these are explore, apply, reflect simulator on the palm pilot.
The concord consortium sonic ranger
kids could bounce balls and measure distances and time.
NotePals: Web-based repositrory of annotations:
they have a number of appliances.they are trying them out.
Information Capture: Pens = personal electronic notebook with sharing>
Larry Lifer at Stanford works with Xerox PARC.
Techgy promotes lifelong learning.
promotes reflection and integration of knowledge. promotes critical
evaluation of diverse sci/eng info. establishes a generalizable inquiry process.
prompts for reflection adn integrate asessment in learnaing. simulates work
the transition from the university to the k-12 envienronments may be
Lifelong learning Simulates work environments examples:
multimedia digital library: The virtual Disk Drive DesignStudio, by Yu,
Agogino,UCB courseware, 1997.
Brief Presentations by different Participants
5. Siemens TTB, R+D+B factory.
They identify mkt segments, dev techglies, prepare bus plans, do pilot
testing. The invest money and domain know how. they get vc money.
they look for conservative, consensus, control of vcs typically. they don't
make so much control.
iq property issue: they support research with non exclusive rights.
sometimes in case by case basis, they want exclusive rights.
He works with Larry Rowe to set up a good working model.
Interval is 7 y old. they wanted to generate a profit within 10 years, but
may need to wait longer. they have already spun off 5 companies. central
concern: how people communicate.they have some physicists. they have relations
to mit, stanford. they have design relaoins to rca in london. they support some
His view of UI design.
three basic questions:
1. how do you...affect the world, how you do things.
2. how do you feel? he has been working on active force feedback. not only
feeling hard things, but the quality of the feedback.
3. how do you know?
Ontology, via terry winograd.
should a ui have buttons or handles? interfaces not only to info but to
laurie anderson will be in berkeley to do a performance about
he is interested in expressive communication.
should a door have a button or a handle on it.
buttons are the trap door to automation.
hi likes cool and hot. cool = incomplete.
when tv converges with cpus, sharp and fuzzy collide.
in the knowing realm: maps vs paths.
One of the spinoffs is Zowie entertainment., san mateo, ca. shows 5 yrs of
research.toys that will be out in dec 99. smart toys. interactive. they did play
research. can sell toy for $50. usijng an antenna. they can track locaton of
objects. multiple hands. many kids can interact together.do they pay attention
to screen or toy.
mark sheff works with robots. affective interactions. robot can do many
postures and emotions.
7. FXPalo Alto Fuji/Xerox Lab
An outpost of fuji xerox from japan. 40 people. she's been there about 2.5
Fuji/Xerox is an outgrowth of Rank Xerox and Fuji film in japan. Rank and
Xerox dissolved their relationship.
sw R lab. colocated with Xerox PARC. take advantage of silicon valley.
links to ucb, stanford, mit, usc. collaborates with james landay. has used
interns from ucb.
general approach: user communities, knowledge, technology.
user community field work:
how do people do ordinary work. inspired by enthographic research.
interviews in work settings. observations of work ractice. innovations based on
work practice observations. broad participation.
One of her projects: VR environments and synchronous, asynchronous
Process: Create, Use, capitalize.
creation: user communities, tech invention, technology evalutation. use:
prototypes and deployment. Capitoalize by licensing and nproduct
3 major groups at fxpal:
1. human centered mobile computing.
2. adaptive software.
3. smart spacas.
Sarah Bly works in group 1!!
One group looking at quantum computing, discourse texts, and smart spaces.
UIs to video, smart rooms, etc.
Group 1: human centerted mobile computing:
X-Libris: personal document readers; reading, annotation, skimming, how
people use paper. how can a portable device use paper concepts.
The Palette: tangible UIs, presentation practices. How do people do
presentations. each slide in a presentation could have a bar code.
Virtual Environments @ work: lightwieght communication, CMC and FTF(=f2f)
conversations and collaborations
Conversational characters: charaacter-based UIs, gesture and speech
recognition and production.
Showed a trasparent screen using a thinkpad.
User System Ergonomic Research
Works on physical, graphical, and cognitive UIs
When computers are strapped on, then interviewees think the interviewer is
the enemy, not just alienation.
But at Hertz checkin out on the driving field, the person with a device in
a holster is a friend aiding your rapid exit.
Cognitive issue: can we introduce beliefs.
he has about 30 people in winter, 45 in the summer.
Info techgy directions:
everything everywhere connected. computers will be aware and reduce
transcription. computers will understand, teach, augment, proxy.
Relationships,things, and comunication.
culture is what changes slowly. good uis tas taking the tool out of the
task: ....but social context: sharing a task, transferring a task, discrete
memory or communication or computation aid, sociaal statements: style, K,
Be careful: social statement we make may make it antithetical to be ing
Towards a behavioral motor match.
He mentions the ibm tracking device in the keyboard.
Techniques should support scenarios.
He studied 3D vs abstract icons.
Room with a view:
New integations: showed wallet.
What are pcs coming to: printer, email, server access, context awareness,
user awareness, input sensing.
Balancing Info: He showed interest tracker demo, an eye tracker.
Future feel of tools. We have been jsing computers for cataloging. info is
beocming personal and personalized. balanced diet of info.
9. Xerox Parc
Xerox Parc does lots of interaction study, but not in computer science lab.
their interest is systems, networks, databases.
his background in cs. he thinks and works with sociologists.
UI guy: it's not about users, its not about UIs. it is about PRACTICE.
i.e., what do people actually do, some people think practice is stable.
but: impact of technology,evolution of tecnology impacts practice.
Examples: 1. evolution of behavior in media spaces, 2. customization
technologies, 3. email patterns of organizational communication.
Implicatoins: 1. foundational grounding [what does this mean? he said
something about theory, not only of computation, but also, of human organiaiotn
and impact of techgy on society], c2. omputation as a medium, 3. experimental
subjects don't have practices.
Having the techgy there changes the practice.
Customization is a social practice supported by techngy.
He is trying to ground his work not jsut in sociology observation but
He tries to do grounded ethnographic work.
He says: Experimental subjects don't have practices. they have only
In his circles, practices means processes.
53 y old company. spinoff factory. (tm). website = firstname.lastname@example.org
CHIC = computer human interaction center. new group.
He will show some demos. all of the demos are based in their open
Multimodal demo: speech and pen
they have lots of recognizers.
agents talk with each other in a kind of natural language so humans can
monitor it also.
he showed a map image tha t uses gesture recognition with a pen and
circling of items.
he views this as an augmented paper.
He showed Maestro: a way to retrieve info from a giant video
database. Has 12 recognizers: speech, frame, and others.
He showed the Fridge metaphor, many words taken from key words of
He asks: for video with blare and iraq.
He sees a diagaram of time, speech recogniziton, speaker id. image shows 12
one recognizer does ocr recognition. it oculd recognize tony bglair in the
He can put together constructs. the little recognizers cooperate.
He even has a flash recognizer that can recognize flashbulbs going
off....to find interesting people.
He is doing a 9/9/99 event at 9:am??? he is giving a big demo.
Question from audience: how can educ techgy use some of this. Answer; they
use open architecture. so they can buy recognizers out on the market and
customize them into their suite very fast.
11. Nokia Research Lab
Infosociety and knowledge management.
he is visiting scholar at ucb june 99 to may 00.
He has been at nrl for 10 years.
1. nokia cmc and K managemetn.
2. R on K creation, social learning, and innovation processes.
3. Social implications of info and comm technologies.
4. He is on info tech forum of finland.
5. he will leave out wireless comm devices and technolgies.
Some KM activities in Nokia.
Collaboration competence center. founded in 9e. generalists. about 800
people. developed lotus notes pilot applicatons, bus inteligence info systems.
acted as core for nokia rollout of lotus notes to 18K users (now 40K
users) over 100 servers in over 25 countries.
NRC K management group: next gen KM concepts and tools. using NRC as a
pilot site, focus on K creation.
KM in their business groups: customer services, r+d, news services, global
NRC KM architecture
People: communties of practice relate to tam collaboration. They had these
two diffrent concepts or kinds of people in organizations.
The technologies or tools they developed to support each group: CoP
cafetria, Teamwork support systems.
The created a K interface between the groups and the support tools.
Corporate Knowledge: some key ideas
problems are deep. must use deeper theories and look deeper.
most websites are not good content.
He has written a book on KM theory.
Outline of KM theory
2 epistemologies: analytical, emprical vs. phenominolci=gal,
theory of intelligent orgnizaitons
-theory of intelligence; based on phenomenoloigal epistemology, social
meaning, processing, an d activity theory
-theory of orgnizations; review of alternative views and the dev of k-based
theory of KM:
-analysis of various roles K plays in organizations
-discussion of K creatioin (elarning) models
-analysis of the SECI model
-devleopment of a new model, th e %-A model
He is trying to apply his theory in 2 areas: measure ment in the
intelligent oraganization, organization for k creation.
3 dimensions of organizational activity:
1. motive....act = activity
2. input....output = production
3. knowledge....communication = meaning nprocessing
Dynamics of communities: shows diagram.
ephemeral/stable/insitutionalized = y axis downward.
homogenous vs heterogenous = x axis
socialization ba externilation ba combinatioin ba
thought community vs task force
commof relective practiinoners
community of pratice
organizational department function
here is the heterogenous column:
....he took away the slide
Living in a Lab: observations on the ihistory an dfuture of the finnish
Finland: 5 million people, 100% digital telcom infrastructure.
hitghest mobile comm = 60%. hightest internet hosts in the world. 98% schools
hav internet access, 2h/day per pupil. largest populaton of internet banking in
abosoultue numbers. finland is siimilar to silicon valley but includes all ages,
diverse kind of people.
Some infrasturcture trends: 16 kbps data in gsm already supported.
bluetooth = short range wireless connectivity. wap = wireless access protocol.
full banking thru fones. can pay using mobile fones in food stores. has bus
schedules on the pohones. can order tickets using mobile phones. next yeasr,
will have 160 kbps and video on phones. soon in two years: 480 kbps.
in finland, you can take it for granted that people have a mobile
phone...everyone. being phoneless will be like being homeless.
they will rollout elecronic identificatoinsystems by end of 99!!!!! in usa,
govt seen as enemy. in finland, govt is trusted more.
they have medical info flowing through the phones.
12. Pixar ANimation Studios
30 people work on UI tools for film production. her approach is to the
pipeline, to get the document out fast.
projects driven in current gen driven by schedule, tasks.
she has 10 y of legacy code in users.
many users have known nothing else but legacy code.
Thre was never an overarching study of what animation production tasks and
Evolution of the shot: evertying starts in preproduction. every
scene as a number and a shot numbers
all the character production goes on here. here prod tools don't play a big
role. people use oil and water colors.
Technology shows up as soon as production starts.
1. layout wrieframe groundplane. and blocking.
2. root model and anthill installed. key frames. posing.
3. set dressing.
4. crowds placed in the set.
5. forground elments added.
6.plastic shaders and camera lights.
7. final shaers installed.
8. final light and camera depth.
Her user community: 275 people in many different departments, each
with workpractices across departments and users. functionality determined by
workflow, work practice and task evoluton. system must continue to evolve to
accommodate changing production pequirements.
Each has distintive ways of working, concepts, tasks.
3d animator thinks of splines.
3d claymator thinks of objects and scenes
today's films only give a glimpse of the future needs. where will cg go?
what is after crowds? what about cloth?
How do i design a ui to design wrinkles.
Some of their work practices.
observe and interview user community. storyboard use and scenarios. build
paper mockups. run wastcher studies. develop computer based concept mockups. pop
quizes. generate ui specs. buld prototypes.
These systems does actually get build. delivering designs for manufacturing
is hard. the community is using it immediately. her constraints: techgly vs time
Some issues of interest:
1. task analysis and user work flow. some users have allowerd her to
2. interaction techniques.
3. customizable work environments.
4. cross platform UI consistency.
5. screen management techniques.
6. context sensitive operations.
7. 3d work in a 3d world.
8. visual design = most controversial topic she has. surveys show
for spreadsheet editors: which are right. the users are all over the board. how
to come up with a visual design to solve her group needs.
Context sensitive operations: big interest of her.
Thursday 8 July 99
Towards Transparent Interfacaes to the Real World
Eric Paulos Computer Science Divsion University of California, Berkeley,
Personal telepresence devices.
CMC now means...telephone, email, chat rooms, muds, video liveboard,
What we want: face to face, presons.
Interactions: structred, technolgoically mediated, human interaction. but
also unstructured, casual, everyday human-human interaction.
video teleconferencing and video walls: typcally hi quality video and
audio, fixed gaze, not chance, casual encoutners, onesided experience.
Telepresence: specific narrow tasks, special oneoff hardware, trained
An example: the blimp.
Terrestirial Props: surface cruiser or cart.
UIuses microsoft netmeeting. communicates withjava applets and
gestures, speech independent, speech related
gase or eye behavior
Props now has an lcd that shows the face of the speaker.
Physical appearance and viewpoint:
-shape, size, height must facilitate intrxns
-friendly and unthreatening form
-conveyeance of personality, mood, or manner
-importance of a few human-like visual cues
-vantage from human head heigght
Proxemics: the study of the natrue, degree and effect of the spatioal
separation individuals naturally maintian.
Pointing and simple gesturing: includes backchanneling.
His application domain of choice: social, casual end, not business.
14. Communicating with Avatar Bodies
Francesca Barrientos, cs, ucb
Communicating with other people through avatars.
Examples of graphical reps of humans: Comicchat, oz, blaxxun. they
are graphical worlds put on top of text chat worlds.
Some say text chat is rich enough: sense of place, space, personality
She wants to use human body for communicating.
Nonverbal behaviors: gesture, proxemics, posture, facial expression,
gaze, context, appearance.
If you have a body in virtual space, how should i use it?
Previous approaches: expressionselection (emotions on faces),
natural language inference (interpretation of comments in parentheses),
automatic animation (mit research).
Beyond Chat: UIs for controlling animation of nonverbal behaviors
throu verbal comm throu audio with continuous control. Needs to understand how
user movements translate onto avatar bodies.
Importance of synchrony: part of meaning of gesture comes form it
co-occurrence with speech. Rhythm, flow, stroke, force, shape, are
Kinematic mapping. between input devies and avatar bodies.
Evaluation: depends on task, ease of use...
Explore design space: she wants to protoype them and try different
approaches. she can explore more quickly than with physical devices like
Network issues: synchronizing control and audio data.
Summary: avatars allow commm using surrogate bodies. gesture and
speech are coexpressive, design tool for building props.
15. Social/Personality Psychology in
Joanie Connell (UCB) , Prof. Gerald A. Mendelsohn (UCB), Prof. Richard W.
Bridging engineering and social psychology.
Looking from the people perspective as to how to use technology. How do
people interact using technology.
Basic question: how do people behave differently, and the same,
across communication media? How do telephones, computers change the way we
interact with people.
Social Psychology: Allport: 'is the study of the effect of actual,
implied, or imagined presence of others on behaviors, thoughts, and feelings.'
from 50+ y ago.
3 questions about interpersonal interactions:
1. Whar are they doing: behavioral ascription.
2. Why are they doing it: causal attribution
3. Do I like them: interpersonal attraction or repulsion
Each of these has large literature. They are gathering R on all 3 Qs.
1. Social behaviors: self-presentation, impression formation.
2. Individual differences: personality, roles, gender
Social psychologists look at personalities that drive behaviors, eg. gender
roles, shyness, etc.
1. Series of systematic, controlled, experimental studies
2. Comparison across media
3. Interactive situations
4. Persceptions of won and others' behaviors.
How do we know people are changing systematically across media? We run
experiements to study how people interact in different situations.
Eg, Do computers facilitate people behaving more aggressively? They run two
different ways for people to get to know each other and measure the number of
uninhibited remarks. Interestingly, in business situations, relatively few
flames. Context matters. flaming occurs a lot in chat rooms. they try to study
Their Research results
For f2f, telephone, chat.
They study nervousness, warmth and talkativeness.
No difference in warmth!
Gender differences in warmth. in f2f, men rate themselves..women rate
Warmth = did not define it. asked people what they thougth.
Their rating scale was 1 to 9. their data was measured along these
They did not study how people behave vs how they rate themselves.
Other measures: partner ratings, observer ratings, linguistic content,
Other phenomena: causal attribution, interpersonal attraction,
Other interactive situations: groups, classroom, bsiness, other
Other media: asynch cmc in email, video, props
They did track cultural groups but...They studied only americans.
Digital Classroom Presentations
16. Taking Convince Me into the Classroom: Dusting off
Michael Ranney, sch of educ, ucb
Riesner's Workbench. Use in k-12 classes.
The Convince Me UI. showes a graphical rep of propositions. node and link
depiction. he teaches in math and science. people must categorize evidence and
explain reasons and show connections. Can show beliefs. Has underlying
connection engine to analyze sets of hypotheses and state beliefs.
Results: convince me seems to be useful.
they are now bringing this system into high schools.
1. Reasoning in science is not too much different formsocial
2. Explanatroy coherence theory is readily acpplicatble to social
3. echo is a good constraint satifsfaction model.
4. convince me aids one's reasonging by making it explitia and by
deepning ones thinking about aaevicendce.
They tried this in high schools in oakland.with very little tech support. 3
students per computer. novices.
Other difficulties: spotty aaattendance. watered down curriculum, lack of
attention span, limited bells and whistles, low SES = social economic
Audience comment: UI is very text oriented and demainding of literacay and
17. Designing Ubiquitous Computers for Learning: An Early
Study with Palms
Sherry Hsi, Center for Innovative Learning Technologies,
Looked at electronic discussions and supporting communities. Observed
movement to create digital libraries.
Wanted to get kids outdoors.
Did a pilot study with palm pilotsand using imagiworks. Berkeley Wireless
Design for Learning: how to build scafllolds. how to link classroom to
daily life. she is collabaorating with Berkeley Wireless research center.
Elliott Soloway and she ran a learning centered design tutorial at
usercentered design ->learner centered design->learner and social
context design->next gen??
Hypothesis for ubiquitous computers: lowcost, ubiq, good acitivites
curricula teaching...wil reformeducation.
Pilot study 1: alameda creek project: diverse hi school. 50% spoke
second lang at home.
-improve student understanding ob ecosysms.
-improve inquiry skills
-lik class K with outside learning
-capitalize on techgy for formal and informal use
-build understanding of science.
Used WISE, internet based system
Amanda the panda is the help guide.
spent a week critiquing evidence. made a concept map of linked entities.
did field studies using pallm pilot probes.
Preliminary Results: students do improve their understanding. Did
studies of pre and post learning concept maps. kids are poor at doing inquiry.
teachers bad at using techgy and explaining. she sees the need for building
archives. they did not study with a control group. hard to compare.
Cilt conference is an excellent place to learn about what people are doing
with technology in education.
18. Using Note-Taking Appliances for Student-to-Student
James Landay, cs, ucb
Observation: students leave classes with different ideas about what was
discussed. Can we eimprove this by encouragning collaboraton.
Vision: take notes on note-taking appliances (electronic devices suited
primarily for writing notes) and combine after class along with lecturer's
NotePals: uses palm pilots and cross pads.
Advantages: inexpensive hardware, easy UI with freeform ink lets
students focus on class, no wireless networking required, easy sharing load of
notetaking, not limited to a single perspective.
1. performing a larger-scale classroom experiment to study how notetaking
behavior changes, results may depend on the style of the professor's slides,
testing methodology, and privacy.
2. build a notepals service with new uis. anyone on web could start a
3. develop notetaking clients for new devices, eg., vadem clio,
4. makeing it easier to annotate other tyhpes of objects or media with
He believes: sharing notes using notepals can help groups of students
collaborate more easily.
He builds systems. not skilled in evaluating them.
Support for Creative Design
19. Digital Desk: Worspacae for Architectural
Ame Elliott (Architecture) and Marti Hearst (SIMS), UCB
She is in design theory and methods group. what is design, can it be
taught? can one teach creativity.
Architecture: a problem finding domain, not a problem solving
Multidisciplinary, collaboarataive domain.
Cultrually learned practiaces of design lend themselves to ethnographic
research: novices are different than rofessionals, hierarchical.
Characteristics: visual thinking, ill designed tasks, problem finding, not
Design=acat deliberately, to plan.
Designers use images of previous projects (precedents) to inform design
Designers design all the time, a lifestyle, not a job.
How can everyday computing support a designer.
IR in Architecture:
Currentlyl Web is not useful for IR tasks:
1. little content, poor quality
2. collections are narrow and deep.
3. searches emphasice precision on not recall.
Architects prefer paper images.
1. easy to juxtapose imagesand make collages.
2. Sketching on top of images helps them think.
3. Designing is a dialogue between designer and problem, and media is part
of the convesation.
from vision maker, big, can sit or stand by it. 25-37"
Size: drawings are large, 24x36, juxtgaposing many images easier.
Luminous: easy to trace, functions as a light table.
Flat and horizontal: good for drawing and spreading out papers.
Lightweight UI: pen input intuitive to designers.
What should Desk UI do?
1. support visuzlization
2. support search.
Example images. Images show collections, searches, relevant
Hypothesis: users will havea an easier time creating a presenttion from
previously created images using the digital desk than with a desktop or
Task: users will creaste a 24x36 poseter presetning preliminary design
ideas using 2 of 3 environments.
Comparison: Digital Desk, conventional dekshop, papersicssorsglue
She's using ethnographic, anthropological techniques to analyze
3 meetings with participants: get task, look at 40 paper images to get
ideas, take system tutotiral. hour and a half to make first poseterin one
environment. 1.5 to make a second poster in second environment.
Comapare mental workload (posttest questionnnaire) and time for test.
1. DD will help IR inarch.
2. 2 aspects of function are integrating paper and dig docs and searach
3. create an experiment
A sketching tool for prototyping web and desktop UIs
Mark Newman and Jimmy Lin, cs/ucb
Based onSILK, cmu project of james landy.
-real, deployable systems
-support for website design
-even more informal than silk.
Web design study
visited 4 design firms, 1 large internet company.
interviewd 4 ui designers, 3 graphic designers, and X others.
Info design: structure, categories of info
Navigation design: interaciton with info structure
Graphic design: visual presentation of info and navig
Insome firms specialties in different people.
Discover=assemble info relevvant to project.
Design exploration: explore alternative design approaches:
Refinement=select one approach and iteratively refine it.
Production=create protoyeps and specs hand off to implementers.
Design Phases and Denim: Denim will focus on early phases of design:
info design and navig design.
1. designers collect and structure large amounts of information; need
support for info design.
2. designers produce intermediate artifacts: focus on creastion of
artifacts appropriate to design phase: schematics site maps, storyboards
3. Designers sketch to rapidly explore design alternatives: a sketch-based
tool will be helpful inearly design; expression more important than
Design of the tool
1. major difference from silk: only one window.
2.tools at the bottom.
3. left part of tool bar is semanatic slider to view a project.
highest level is site map, logical view of project. text labels of org
chart. with arrows.
Not trying to show all relations, only major
4. Storyboard view: shows rought layout. arrows show more precision and
show transitions via hyperlinks.
5. sketch view: single page, all detail visible. not yet graphic design
with details of color.
This UI in oriented toward the pen UI.
1. pan and zoom.
2. pencils: gneric pencil for sketching. event pencils for sketching arrows
associated with particular events.
3. rubber stamps: for inserting components, built incomponents.
How to track and store alternatives.
A drwing program for the visually impaired.
Hesham M. Kamel and James Landay
Lots of R on blind to access graphical data. his tool lets blind people
Example: drawing a side view of a car. Tookhim 13 minutes.
-problems with uis for dwg
-design of ic2d
Major problems with drawing UIs.
-guis rely on visual feedback. imagine drawing witht he monitor off: where
is the cursor, what's on the screen. how to di get back to wehre i was.
-haptic uis are hard to carry and expensive.
-based on telephone keypad
-two ways to navigate. direction keys or numbes.
-gives feedback via voice. gline users accustomed to screen readers.
-showed example of drawing.
-allows precision of 27x27 cells.
-permits drawing objects at different scale, eg, the right arrow.
Example of drawing a circuit
3x3 grid used for menus, also, to select graphic element, color.
He prefers using keyboard and physical input rather than speech input. for
him it helps to create a better mental map.he does not like giving over to the
computer too much of the activity.
Question: using tones to display when he crosses grid lines. to help
him navigate. Reply: plans semantic feedback. also can create additional
21. Social Network Analysis.
Elisa Jane Bieneerstock.stanford
Social networks analysis:
1. interdisciplinary method for mesuring cnxns between individuals, using
sociology, antrho, math, physics.
2.soch and atnth ask interesting questions.
Social Network Theory
-sociology and SNT do not focus on individuals but on larger groups.
-microsociologigst study interactions or relations between individuals, not
process inside indivdual.
-macro socioogists study large societies.
-interest is collection processes traditional in terms of culture,
-socialnetworktheory is an explicit structureal theory whose focus is the
micro/macro link: links between individuals, but that person linked to someone
1. individual's attitutdes and opportunities are constrained by their
2.social context or environment is the social sspace that person
3. social space explicitly is who they are connected to in wocial
-who they talk to, like, dislike, influence, boos around, engaged in
4. these conextions are relations.
1. 2 useful ways to measure or conecptualize relations that allw math
meodelling: graphs, matarices.
2.graphical rep indivisual are rpessesntedas nodes and relations as
3.A==>B implies a relation between a and B. can be directional can have
4. For a matrix rep each indivdual is represented as a veactor of possible
relations with all others. no relation is represented as a zero. presence of a
relation can be directed or valued.
1. while absence and presence of relations can be represented in same way,
diffrent types need diffrent interpretatins: value and direction, communication
2. some network techniques focus on finding the relatons among
3. some focus on individual attributes within the network
4. Others focus on the structure poperties of the network itself.
1.Knowing which positions are active or instrumental is one question
network analysis addresses. differnet types of centrality to mesure diffrent
types of influence.
2.Degree-number of noteds.
3.closeness-ability to get to all nodes in a short path.
4. betweenness-property of lyong on paths linking others.
eg, if a person ins betwenness, might be a bottleneck, might be the most
efficient for distributing messages, if the person disappears, might
1. people withsimilar realtional patters are similar: block models,
correlation, geometric distance, other clustering techniques.
2. grouping people withsimilar pattersn can be useful.
3. methods are be used to help people to share.
Applications for computing
1. computers allow network researchers to collect better more comprehensive
data about computer realtaions thanreal life realtions permit.
2. network analysis proides people intersted in the structure of computer
comunities a powerful monitoring too.
3. diffrent cetnrality measures can be used to detiermine if network s are
fefficient and where or whey they are not.
4. these techniques can be used to look at the natural use and growth of
communities but can also aid to highlllighting where the structure of the
computer architecture is causing inefficiency.
Affilitation of twomode networks.
1. people by people analysis is only one type of work that is
2. peple canalso be related to each other thru commonaffiliations.
3.these techniques can be used to classify people by common choices or
selections as well as affailitation.
1. strucute of different types of realtions may be diffrent, so some
measures are not appropriate for some types of relations.
2. karen cook et al in 83 found that acentrality is not a good measure for
determing who is powerful for certaintypes of exhcanges, eg info changes. when i
give info to you i still have it. not so with dollar.
3.there is a whole subfield that looks at measures to summarize
characteristics of exchange networks.
4.this is instuructuive becasue osome of those measures may have
applications to different relations in computing.'
22.Social Networking on WEb
Motivation: people spend a lot of time on web in isolation.
Spaces: urls, locations dry.
Web places, associated conceptually. see other users, chat, follow,
Social network, connection.
Mapping to places: difficult. Url+user--->placae.
implicit structure: social networking notation: grpahs of informaton and
Uses: lets people find other peole with saeme interest, needs.
Questions: webplaces, ambiguous places, the thridvoice controversy. talk of
the net: melissa virus. social networks and mailing lists.
1. what is hcc? composite of hci, cscw, cae
2. how to evalueate, asses, what are the criteria.
3. what role does techgy play?
4. what other apps can we focus on besides email? notetaking? design?
5.Process vs practice, task vs. ???
6. different goals of sociologists vs engineers.
7. need for a project.
8. could be the project of ui's for collaboration about
How can we build up relationship between computer sciences and social
1. What is the human-centered component?
2. How can we collaborate more? With whom?
3. How can we relate to industry better.
4. How can we bettter user funding models to foster collaboration?
3. Sociology and computer science
5. Evaluation, assessment criteria
6. Technology, process, practice
7. Concept visualization
8. Concrete projects, terminology
9. Human-machine, human-human interaction
1. Human-machine/human-human interaction: 13
2. Design: 6
3. Multimoda: 7l
4. Sociology, anthropology and computer science and education: 14
1. What is design?
To make things
we use computers, not the computers using us
the design process: going from abstract to concrete
design process involves looking at things form many perspectives.
art is something designed to create a reaction.
science is something presented to ahve people refer to.
design is presenting things to facilitate function.
design is for function for someone
design must always keep customer in mind.
design: must keep user in mind.
2. What is the human-centered component?
User centered, usability, market driven implies fitting into existing
What is central to human beings is searching for new powers,
Designers can be megamaniacs or at the other end completely market
Designers make tradeoff decisions.
Designers need to understand how the world works.
Designers need to have fresh eyes, to be knowledgable, to understand
Designers need to be able to think imaginatively, think crazily, create
something out of parts.
Desginers are not omniscient.
One major aspect of design is learning.
One major aspect of design is communicating ideas to others.
Designers can design evolutonary or revolutionary.
3. Key research issues
How do I know when a technique is effective?
How do I translate an idea to space, from one space to another?
How do I translate from concept to artifact.
How can I see a simulation of the social impact of my protoype?
How can I design a user experience?, i.e., the feel to the user?
What are the tasks of the design process?
How can the computer support these tasks?
How can I capture the innovation process of the designers?
How can the computer help in the innovation process?
How can computers help manage the design process?
How can computers manage the assets and artifacts, without losing the
How can we evaluate the tension between functional design and stylistic
How can we measure the merit of functional, style, of a desgin?
How can we find problems of users? How can we determine technical aspects
of the solutions?
How do we solve a problem elegantly?, ie.meets
What is elegance?
How do we determine where we should be on the designer continuum between
maniac and victim of marketers?
How do we evaluate designs?
How do we support collaborative design?
How do we manage design process?
How do we avoid least common denominator results?
4. With whom should they collaborate?
At Stanford, CSLI, is not a good model.
How can we make them be hungry to share resources?
How can we get people to want to share resources and credit?
We need to figure out how to help the sociological sciences to get, run
equipment and to fund their students?
How can CS offer "locker space" to less well financed
What else can CS people offer to the Soc people?
Help put in wireless leave behind infrastructure in the Soc areas.
5. What are the funding models for HCC or for human-centered design
Consumers fund designs.
Uninterested benefactors support or fund design.
MIT Media Lab: from partners and partners have no control, neutral
NYU Interactive Technology Program: educational program, little
Three-year model: first year is fun, second year, people ask where is the
benefit, by third year, must prove results.
Quarter-by-quarter results is most often a business demand.
1.5 years might work for some.
SRI model: integrates things from other departments.
Columbia University dilemma: wound up competing with industry, too close to
real applications, not practical issues. results in possible conflict.
One dream of the center: two tiers: one attacks difficult research issues.
each industrial partner puts in a contribution. Second level: application
specific. each partner takes some from basic level and puts in for specific
Al Gore: we must increase funding for human-interaction research:
What is the current financial situation of the HCC?
IBM historically may give about $1m to UCB/CS.
Marketing research is important.
Good presentations are important.
Good demos and public relations are important.
Good access important.
Good PR is important.
This culture must be built and maintained without destroying the research
Definition of Design
Glossary from Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc. ,
May be used with citation.
Basic Terminology as of about 15 Feb 99
Aaron Marcus, President, AM+A
o User interfaces
o UI development process
UI design components
User Interfaces: A
user¹s interactive experience
of command-control over functions
data conveyed through
Emphasis on communication
[o Note: One aspect of UIs = Information visualization,
so in the discussion below
UI => UI+IV in almost all places, where IV = tables,
charts, maps, diagrams]
Steps in UI Development
Define problems or opportunities
Set budget, schedule, tasks, resources
Research: Investigate techniques for
Examine results of research
Refine criteria for
Determine primary usability criteria
Define design brief
(statement of goals)
Steps in UI Development
Visualize alternative solutions
Select the best
Prepare documents for implementation
Implement: Build design, complete
o Evaluate: Test
results at any UI dev. step
Record history, issues, decisions
specifications, guidelines, recomms.
Steps in UI Development
o User-interface development cyclical
and partially or completely
evaluation may be carried out
prior to, during, or after the design
Separate processes may exist
for each component of UI design
o (Metaphor development has same
Components of UI Design: 1/3
Users: Demographics, experience (from
to expert), workflow/productivity
criteria, needs, desires, context,
Matter: Data, functions, tactics, strategies
Technology: Hware, Sware, Net, UI
Ideas conveyed through
terms, images, sounds, movement
of UI Design: 2/3
o Mental models: Organization of data,
functions, tasks, roles,
o Navigation: Movement via menus,
(visual, acoustic, tactile)
o Interaction: Input, status
and feedback techniques
Components of UI Design:
o Special data
visualization: Charts, maps,
diagrams of structure and process
metaphor design, also!
o Special corporate or product identity:
Specific adjustments of
Metaphors, Rhetoric, Semantics,
Rhetorical technique of semantics dimension in
the discipline of semiotics
Fundamental part of communication,
Component of user-interface design
Metaphors, Rhetoric, Semantics,
o Semiotics = the
science of signs
Semiotics emerged from
o Semiotics evolved to include all forms
literature, painting, music, product design,
Lexical = how signs are produced
o Syntactic = how signs
o Semantic = how signs refer
to other things
o Pragmatic = how signs are
Wisdom: significant knowledge
o Knowledge: significant patterns of
information with action
significant patterns of data
o Data: simple perceptual or conceptual input
What Is Visually-Oriented
o Information-oriented visual design, or graphic
design, is the
systematic use of typography,
symbols, color, and other static and
graphics, in two, three, or four dimensions,
knowledge: facts, concepts,
and emotions that enable people to make
decisions about their or others¹ lives.
Friday 9 July 99 Breakout reports
Multimodal Breakout: James Landay
-What is 'recognize'?
-What is 'natural'? What would supernatural be?
-What are 'tools'? learning might be hard, but would make you powerful; are
tools use once and throw away, or is it changeable.
-What is 'universal.'? People with different abilities should be able to
use computers. People with different skills should be able to excell and use
Homes: embedded in products, learning in the home, how we interact with
Design: as everyday activity, would multimodal help, eg planning a trip;
for real production systems
CCAC: involved already by person from UC in new product design, inc Web
projects, and they already started new companies!
Industry: projects, teaching. have industry partners teach courses, lead
HCC Breakout 2
About the space
How do we work
An example project
About the space
Who: profs, grad students, users, visitors
Space models: war room, projects/demos, cubicles/maaahine room; zoo of
Attractions: toys, real users, events, reading groups, seminars, free
How do we work?
Short term studies: 3month timescale, milestones with concrete results,
class projects to capture new students.
Novel user group as project seed: insurance, lawyers, doctors, wide range
with no relation to univ.
How to foster collaboration: threats, buddy system, seminars, reading
groups, intellectual capitalism
How to establish credibility?
Publish, but where: chi, cscs, uist, jperssocpsych
What will UCB/HCC be known for? What is the niche? eg, penbased
Alumni go on to great things: multidisc, collab skills v attractive to
Organize metings/workshops and publish proceedings
PR: contests, science fairs
Diffusion of repsonsibility: keep it small, someohe has ownership (first
Island mentality: collaborating is too hard; need collab buy-in
Failure to deliver results: establish credibiilty
Students frightened off: career damage?
An example project
Research Q: what happens when interpersonal intearcitons are
CS Qs: props-how to design a remote presence for the home? avatars-what are
good controls for avatar gestures?
Customer? at+t, users = consuemrs for new home videowall product.
EE questions: required quality of voice commus to preserve emotional
Core resources: custom equip, testing set up, user=subjects, experimental
HCC Breakout 4
Researach is centered around people.
Always think about how the techgy helps people.
Issues involve soci engineering, politics, markets, industry and
instituions, cscs and HCI, moraltheical issues, sociocultural
Alleviate harm and increase benefits.
focus on a system of people plus tools.
We should focus on social fabric.
CSCW shoves aside political and social-cultural issues in the deployment of
Market forces impact techgy.
Moral and ethical issues would be emphasized at HCC.
Legal issues might be involved.
We were not necess saying that HCC should do soc engineering, but bring
critical reflection to the fore.
We need to engage communities with whom we design techgies and bring in
What is important: the practices of the ongoing activities of users, and
think about the impact on practices while deploying technology.
Goal: avoid technolgy driven systems design.
Goal: put political, social impact in the foreground of design.
Goal:focus on system of people, with systems of tools.
Innovation: both conceptual and concrete that feed back. not just on
technical innovation. we should innovate concepts.
Industry collaboration: how can this be done where for industry and acadmy
is both good. for academy, conceptual innovation might be the most important.
How can we do this?
Alice from UCB: self-reflection important. retreats important. some of us
were worried about some terminology that is used. "it's not your father's
computer. it's a computer even your mother could use"
How we talk about technology is important.
CS and Sociology Group
What sociology, antrhopology have to offer.
Technology as status
What do people value?
Sense of identity
Sense of achievement
Sense of mstaery
Sense of importance
Castell, and other writers, recognize increasing imporance of the
Next stage of computer: ubiquitous, surrounds us. [we are in the machine.
we are the soul of the machine]
Creating a Center:
Establish a center
Create a movement first
Some evangelism by core peole.
Identify hot areas in other disciplines, offer help, and resources:
Change in work and home lifestyle: Challenge: conducting study of how
Health care, maintenance
Ageing, lifelong learning
Models of learnign
K creation and management
Activity theory: related to learning and practice. Deft = The way you
behave is colored by a social environment. Learning takes place through a mentor
who scaffolds the learner. learning is always in a social context.
Identity: Create a t-shirt,domain/web server. don't be too inclusive. be
clear; avoid vague terms.
Put hcc retreat discussion on a website
Send stuff to email@example.com
Website for HCC = www.cs.berkeley.edu/~jfc/hcc
HCC reading group: Paulos@cs.berkeley.edu
Political and moral issues: understanding vs. prescription. what is
appropriate? be careful about political correctness? political and moral issues
are a research topic?
Cf. Donald Day's lecture at last IWIPS conference: technology may be good,
Cf. Univ of Toronto: carries on real projects
Legitimatediscourse: don't need to solve all.
We must partner with industry. not be a thinktank servicing industry.
Heart with morality, industry mind says, financial controller want: convert
excellent technology into products.
At Siemens collaboration is in three categories:
1. good will, contrib to society.
2. intersting projects. transfer results to siemens
HCC can work through technology. Outcome is new ways of working, new ways
of developing technology, new....
HCC provides an opportunity to achieve these goals.
Outreach: can go out to depts, industry, general public.
HCC Long-range Plan
John Cann, ucb
Our reason for being = mission statement:
-to make computing more useful to people.
-to use computing to learn more about people.
(social science studies)
-computing is permeating our daily lkives, and becoming our
(he reads post modern philosophy. moving into the way we behave is
increasingly impacted by brands. we are becoming more virtual in our comm and
society. we confuse physical with vr. physical has been partly vr for some
The HCC model
-we want to have social sciences participate as primary partners.(we want
critical dialogue withthem aobut unintended consequenceas of techgy. cs people
think vertically. ss people think horizontally)
-interdisciplinary collaboration is hard, and happens sporadically by
-collaboaraton happens much more often when facilitated by: shared space or
proximity, reg face2face contact, shared funding.
What we want to deliver
-HCC provides resources and seeks to generate:
-focused researche projects involving collab between 2-7 faculty (nsf,
industry, etc. funded).
-industry partnerships in those projects.
-opportunities for graduate students: contact with or co-advising by
faculty acroos departments. contacts with industry.
Three projects in the pipeline
1. Being there: (2cs, 2ee, 2psychologists). expansion of props work.john
canny, jerry mendolsohn, and ...keltner of nonverbal comm. will
participate. how to use nonverbal cues and use compression to get the right
things there with a savvy tech system. need to learn what's most imiportant and
effective. will dissect and study nonvebal cues. will try to interpret facial
expression and ship it to props or avatars.
1. tacit knowledge mining (2 cs, 2 sociologist, 1 anthropologist). came out
of discussions with ucb bus school. how to understand tacit knowledge. illka
says: 90% of K in a corp is tacit, not explicit. computing does not do much with
that now. hard to get data out of people's heads. maybe analysis of practice can
extract it. team will use several disciplines.jim lincoln is sociologist is in
the bus school. project is organized around corp practice.
3. knowledgescapes (2cs, 2 socio, 1 sims): how to improve the document
space by organizing it not by content, but do an org according to info needs and
quereies of users to cluster documents. some evidence shows that this helps give
info to people. The other question: web demographics. one of the social
difficulties in most civilized countries: disadvantaged neighborhoods are geo
and social network disadvantage. people do noe know others in other communities.
this restricts their mobility. as people rely more on info from the web for
shopping and getting services, will we see similar patterns. will there be a
closeness of their exploration of the web. they will do demographic sampling of
certain sites with known demographics.
These projects have $1m research, so they can do some progress.
Lessons from the GVU
GVU is similar. John Canny talked with the current director. about history.
Jim Foley founded it. Jack Rosniak is the current director. Jim got a big grant
and put it into creating the center. created a board. started pr and a web site.
jim delegated internal activities. jim concentrated on industrial outreach. john
thinks similar is correct.
-Create a core group of faculty and industry people with specific
-Hire some staff people to manage daytoday functioning of the center.
-create partnerships with industry.
-go after government support.
-create shared labs.
GVU succeeded. About that time, GIT declared it a formal center and gave
about $100m as an official center.
The Bekeley Brand
-Balance and strength in SS and CS.
-Of the 30 main graduate research disciplines, UCB has depts in the top 10
in 28. according to NCR. Even more that the private schools, has more in top 10
than any univ in usa .
-Strength in Theory and Formalism.
Alice: What about education and design?
-HCC seminar continues: speakers fromcs, social scienes, academic and
-New grad corse onHCC covers:
1.presence and non-verbal comm
2.socialnetworktheory and paplicaions
4.activity theory, social learning.
How can you help?
-UCB: be involved in semianr, retreasts
-Direct support at center level.
GVU started with $200K, HCC does not have this.
HCC does not have discretionary industrial funds. Need bootstrapping
-Partnerships: focussed projects, fixed duration. IP contracats need to be
-Steering committee or IAB=industry advisory board.
Alice: Anonther funding source: digital library. she has two grants now.
Gore wants to give: $150M for national digital library.
Interval, Bill Verplanck: Personal and professonal motives.
Interested in design and sketching. His Interval interests: cable companies are
being bought up. broadband into the home. Viewing on demand. how to watch
500 channels. convergence of cable and pc and movies and tv and web. alternative
telephone channel to the home. computer mediated communication. focus is: not on
how to hookup the networks, but what people do. looking at the future of remote
controls. is the remote, or the couch, or the whole room. how to lean forward,
fly. when are you engaged in the control. CSCW has work in it. we need CSCPlay,
entertainment, mobile. What happens when you do not think about the computer as
a computer but a bunch of stuff.
Pixar, Karen Weber. Impressed by diversity, different disciplines.
passions. Another motive: goal of sharing her knowledge and experience. would
like to continue her relationship. One of her concerns: HCC heard a lot about C
anc C but not about humans. Need real people to think out of the box. Other
research models have fought against the tension between people and machines.
Cauation: don't become an MIT media lab. they give good demos, but don't think
about people using technology. don't become just a good demo center. You need to
study people and how they work. Then how to apply the technology. Tension in
academic departments, better to be inclusive, but maybe with a different model.
another approach: when people visit the center, do they come with the knowledge,
they are just a team member. are the grad students going to be just cs people or
a new brand of academic.
FxPal,Elizabeth C.: Some people talk about mission, pr, branding,
putting people first. She also says, don't become a demo center. Should focus on
a particular project. Think about the benefits and actual activities. Industrial
partners: difficult, but possible. Interns, seminars in the eve are good. IP
should be considered.
XeroxPARC, Paul Dourish: set up situations which encourage debate.
Stat a movment, domain, a buzz. Look for a small focussed collab projects. eg
grads help each other. Share the data and observations. need for new ways of
thinking about collab, about working together.
Nokia, Illka: does not yet know the berkeley system yet. sees people
trying to go into a new area. computers are embedded in social life. meaning,
not info in the future. meaning processors should be thought about. we have
macro level topics: new social patterns, languages, trends. these people must be
found. proplem is not technology, but social organization, change processes,
power structures, how to communicatenew ways of doing things so they are
understandable, how to package innovatoin and market innovation. re MIT: demo or
die. you must have concrete artifacts to concentrate discussion. demos seem
often trivial. if you compare this to deploying it in real life, the deployment
is more challenging. the hard and difficult task: understand regulation
and laws, how people use it. they have support for competence management
of skills in orgs at nokia. but there are different laws in different countries
re collecting data. this impacts more than techgy. example: collecting id info
in finland is ok. in usa is a hot topic for debate. big topic: rethinking new
architectures of computers, not digital. thinking how you can deploycognitive
artifacts in society: emotional, material aspects are more important. new:
knowledgemanagement. access is not imporant in future: relevance is imporatant.
in future: avoidance of info is important. No one understands these concepts
well. Must be able to communicate model for how this HCC will happen.
operational model, funding, etc. must comm this clearly.
Inverval Mark S: skill sets issue: cold/soft science. What about
design, art. Look at very complex problems and try to find a solution by
intuition. i am concerned that more attention is paid to this group. CCAC has
people like that. There is an academic instinct to debate too long. designers
can make useful prototypes.
Siemens, Arding Hsu: good chemistry here. re research: he
spent 15 y in siemens central research for worldwide multimedia research.
business center in berkeley: CIA. want to marry comm, info, and automation
together. if you want good comm, you need broadband. you'll see many needs in
factories. in factories, you see big networks, processes. this is a big future
for HCC development. Another direction: bridge physical world and virtual world.
Bottom business line: no money, no business. How can we help hcc get some $ to
get to the right place. In his earlier life, he was liaison for many
collaborative projects. He knows the 3y cycle. he suggests: must come out
with a 3yr financial model. can divide govt and industrial funding. maybe 50%
govt at first. For govt funding can look at the big picture. for industry, must
be focussed. He has $500K for berkeley. he needs a quick success story. needs
berkeley help with success story, then he can bring in more $. He has talked
with Siemens semiconductor people.
Glad to see HCC arising.
Depends on leadership
Exampes: UCB,Yale interdisciplanary, EWC; interdisciplinary
Lack of design input.
Good demos important for both conceptual analysis and presentations.
Need to look at history, other cultures, semiotics, visible language,
AM+A California Tel: 510-601-0994, Ext 19
AM+A New YorkTel: 212-625-1813
User Interfaces and Information
about user-interface design for the Web: