# QUESTIONS OF THE DAY:

## Suppose, some application program wants to display the line segment between points  ( 0,  0.125 )  and  ( root(0.5),  pi ),  -- how do you accomplish this ?

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# Lecture #2 -- Mon 1/26/2009.

## Discussion of the issues raised by the question above ...

(x, y) coordinate pairs refer to a standard rectangualr viewport frame with (0, 0) in the lower left corner and (1, 1) in the upper right corner.

If the line extends beyond the boundaries of the viewport it needs to be clipped to stay within that rectangular frame. Then we just draw that visible segment.

The endpoints of a specified line segment need NOT  coincide with integer pixel coordinates (i.e., the centers of the pixels).

## Drawing (Visible) Line Segments

### Standard Line-Drawing Abstractions (e.g., OpenGL API)

==> Pre-coded routines to do the low-level work for you:
•  Moveto(Pt),
• Lineto(Pt),
• Begin PolyLine -- Pt -- Pt -- Pt -- ... -- Pt -- End PolyLine.

• Abstractions are important ! (you may not know what display device your program will face).

You will use such routines in your first programming assignment, A1.
A#1:  How to draw lines interactively on a raster device.
You will be using a mouse to define vertices on the screen, which then get automatically connected by straight line segments.
A whole lot of detailed stuff will happen "under the hood" -- but you don't have to worry about that!
This is what you will see: Demo of A1-applet.
With just a little effort you might obtain an outline drawing like this "evol1.gif" (Since this is Darwin year, I chose an "evolution" example).
In assignment A2, you will then interactively modify that contour, and perhaps obtain a shape like this "evol2.gif" (an "evolved" creature).
Then, as you change the interpolation coefficient between 0.0 and 1.0, you can see evolution in action: "evol3.gif".
To make a particularly neat demo, you should try to maintain functionalities from shape_1 to shape_2, e.g. have the same vertices in the two polgon B-rep chains represent the eye, the mouth, the tail ...,
and perhaps have two fins on the fish that turn into the legs of the alligator. During the morph process, the creature may also move on the screen, say from left to right.
Be creative !  (But not a creationist!  :-)

### Line-Drawing on Calligraphic Devices, e.g., Line-drawing CRT:

==> Sweep the beam (pen) from A to B:

To do this sweep in a time interval dt:
-- move beam (or pen) to location (Ax, Ay) and turn beam on (put pen down on paper);
-- simultaneously increase x-position proportional to (Bx-Ax)/dt and y-position proportional to (By-Ay)/dt, thus creating a slanted linear motion;
-- turn beam off at location (Bx, By) (lift pen off paper).

### Line-Drawing on a Raster Devices, driven by a Color frame buffer:

==> Figure out which set of matrix elements need to be turned on:

First, let's just assume a B/W raster display with say 800 by 600 pixels (= small dots that can be individually turned on/off).
• Foil: How to draw a banana or a thin line ?
• Foil: Which PIXELS should be turned on ?
• (E.g., Bresenham or DDA algorithm to turn on "the right" pixels efficiently. [Ch.3.5] )

Now, what else do we need to control a color raster device?
A more detailed look at a Frame Buffer -- the heart of a Raster Device:
-- bit planes:  depends on how many different colors you want to see simultaneously.
-- color map: input = # of bit planes;   output = # of inputs to all Digital-to-Analog-Converters (DACs),
-- DACs to set the 3 intensities for RGB
-- The 3 RGB intensity signals determine the color of one pixel displayed on the CRT.

## Abstractions are important everywhere in Graphics -- also for input / interaction devices!

These are some of the physical input devices that you may encounter:
•  Keyboard (input character codes),
• Lightpen (absolute positioning on screen),
• Tablet (absolute positioning on desktop),
• Mouse (relative positioning),
• Trackball (relative positioning),
• Joystick (velocity control),
• SpaceBall (6 DoF velocity control),
• Polhemus Magnetic Wand (3D position input),
• Data Glove (3D position and gesture input),
• Haptic stylus,
• Wii (Nintendo)
• ...

All these devices need to be supported with proper software. To reduce that burden and to exploit the conceptual similarities of many of these devices, a few "logical input devices" are defined with corresponding generally usable APIs. One typically defines for each device a "measure" describing the value(s) returned by the device, and a "trigger" which is a signal that generates an event in the graphics program. PHIGS and GKS (two standard graphics frameworks) define six conceptual logical input devices
• String: Get a string of text.
• Locator: Return the coordinates of a position on the screen.
• Pick: Find the primitive(s) under the current cursor location.
• Choice: Select one of several different options (e.g., function keys).
• Valuator: Return the value from a slider or dial.
• Stroke: Capture a polyline of many subsequent cursor positions.

OpenGL works at a slightly lower level; many of the above functions are synthesized from basic position information and appropriate context-sensitive software; these pieces of the user interface, often associated with separate small windows (e.g., pull-down menues or sliders), are also called "widgets". Different relationships between the measure process and the trigger event define different input modes:

• Request Mode: The measure is sent to the computer upon request by a trigger activation.
• Sampling Mode: The measure is read immediately upon the corresponding function call.
• Event Mode: Trigger actions place measure values on an event queue. Callback functions respond to these events. (This is the preferred interaction mode for client-server systems.)

## Object Representation for Computer Graphics and CAD

We need to distinguish between modeling and rendering.
In the modeling phase we create a virtual object or scene described in some suitable datastructure of file format.
In the rendering phase we create an image (projection, display) of this model from a particular viewpoint; for that we need:
• a representation of the scene (geometry, surface color, materials),
• a specification of a camera (observer, viewer),
• a definition of the illumination present (various lights).
In general, one wants to preserve the objects that one has created  (e.g., your polygon of A#1).
How can you do that ?
-- Core dump from memory ?
-- Printing out all data structures ?
-- A terse minimal set of information that will permit to recreate the polygon ?
It would be great if somebody else also could read your data and draw your polygon ...
==> We need a standard polygon interchange format !
This is also true for the more complicated objects that you will create later in the course.

Over the last 24 years that I have taught this course we have used many different interchange formats:
• OSF (Object Specification Format) -- Specifically for CS 184, 1985.
• OFFOS (Our Format For Object Specification) -- 1987.
• SDL (Scene Description Language) -- 1990.
• GLIDE (Graphics Language for Interactive Dynamic Environments) -- 1994.
• SLIDE (Scene Language for Interactive Dynamic Environments) -- 1997.

This year we are going to use a rather simple format based on the commercially used OBJ format, -- extending it as we need it, and thus calling it OBJ*
The main features of any of these file formats are:

• compact, yet readable and editable format;
• easy to parse, and extensible syntax;
• geometry is contained in the vertex coordinates and in the instance placements;
• topology information is explicitly captured in connectivity between vertices via edges and faces;
This is called a "boundary representation" or "B-rep" for short,
(we omit discussion of hierarchy and time-dependence for today).
For Assignment #1 you only need to know the constructs: point and face.
This B-rep can easily be extended to 3-dimensional objects.

Study: ( i.e., try to understand fully, so that you can answer questions on an exam):
Shirley, 2nd Ed: Ch 3.1-3.5.

Skim: ( to get a first idea of what will be discussed in the future, try to remember the grand ideas, but no need to worry about the details):
Shirley, 2nd Ed: Ch 3.6-3.8

## Programming Assignments 1 and 2:

Both must be done individually.
Assignment #1 is due (electronically submitted) before Thursday 2/5, 11:00pm.
Assignment #2 is due (electronically submitted) before Thursday 2/12, 11:00pm.

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